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Teaching International Business Management Effectively

Carol A. Vielba, David J. Edelshain

Abstract

Present the results of a survey of young British managers studying for their MBA about their views on the knowledge and skills needed to manage effectively across international boundaries. Present respondents′ views on learning such knowledge and skills through traditional taught courses and through experienced learning. Short immersion courses taught overseas were found to be a very effective means of preparing managers to work in an international environment. Finally, presents a number of issues and dilemmas business schools need to face concerning the preparation of managers for roles in the international marketplace.

The growth of international business implies that business schools must equip their graduates with the skills and competences to operate across national and cultural boundaries. Nowhere is this more important than in Europe which comprises a multiplicity of independent nations, a plethora of languages and cultures and more than one major trading bloc. However, before schools can train managers effectively they need to have a relevant model of international business and to develop appropriate techniques for teaching the subject. This article addresses these issues and presents the results of a study of young UK managers who have studied international business both in the classroom and the field.

Models of international business management

Management teachers are divided as to whether their subject is generic or specific. For example, fierce arguments take place about whether public servants require separate courses to teach knowledge and skills for managing public authorities or whether they need the same training and education as those with careers in business. Business schools argue whether general management qualifications such as the MBA should or should not be offered oriented towards particular functions, such as marketing or personnel; or particular sectors, such as banking or retailing. In the same vein is the debate about the nature of international business management.

There are two contrasting models of international business which underlie business school teaching. The first model, which will be referred to in this article as the generic model, is based on the premiss that international business management is fundamentally the same as management at the national level. This model suggests that the main focus of management teaching for international business should be on environmental factors. Appropriate subjects would include regional and area studies, cultural and political studies and the structure and mechanics of international trade and investment. Relevant environmental factors are not difficult to identify. However, because they are frequently contextually specific, it is difficult to offer more than a sample in a programme such as an MBA. The best that can often be done is to alert the manager to the need for research and briefing prior to working with or in a particular country or countries.

The second model is based on the premiss that once managers are required to operate across national boundaries they face different problems and opportunities. This model, referred to in this article as the specific model, implies that the focus of international business management courses should be the acquisition of specific skills and competences needed to manage internationally. The most obvious skill that is needed is that of speaking foreign languages. It is this model which supports the development of "international" courses within general management qualifications, such as international marketing, international sales, international banking, international business policy or managing international organizations.

It is possible to add an "international" in front of almost every course taught on an MBA and create a pair of units for every subject: the problem often is to know how to differentiate what is taught at each level.

In an attempt to shed some light on the extent to which managers, as opposed to academics, subscribe to these models a survey was undertaken of a group of young managers who were either studying for or had recently completed a part-time evening MBA at City University Business School, London. The key findings of the survey are presented below.

The profile of the managers who took part in the survey

The City University Business School evening MBA caters for young managers working in or near one of the world’s great concentrations of international business, the City of London. Over many years it has developed a focus on teaching international business within the MBA. The specific model has been the underlying paradigm on which a series of advanced courses in aspects of international business have been developed. More recently this has been complemented by short courses taught abroad in Europe and the Far East. These courses were initially based on the generic model of international business, but over time the locational content has been balanced by content designed to facilitate the acquisition of specific skills for international business management. Further details of the nature of these courses is given later in the article when the evaluation of their effectiveness is discussed.

A total of 164 evening MBA students were identified who had taken such short courses (known as International Teaching Weeks) over the last four years. Many of those who had completed their MBAs some time ago proved hard to contact and altogether 62 questionnaires were returned, comprising 38 per cent of the total.

In order to put the opinions of this group into context it is useful to summarize the characteristics of the respondents. The average age of students on the course is 29 years and the respondents were spread around this mean as shown in Table I. The opinions expressed, therefore, are based on a number of years of business experience.

Three-quarters of the sample were men. A figure of 25 per cent for women is typical both of advanced management education in the UK and representation of women in management in the industries from which the students are drawn. The industrial breakdown of the group is given in Table II. The service industry bias, and within that the financial services bias, stands out.

Respondents classified only 30 per cent of the companies they worked for as UK-based; the remaining 70 per cent were multinationals. The international dimension of respondents′ work environment is thus clear. The jobs the managers in the survey did reflected their industry profile to a considerable extent (Table III). The only surprise was the large number of IT specialists. Respondents were asked more detailed questions about their international business experience. Half of the group travelled regularly abroad on business and 60 per cent had worked abroad. Of those who had worked abroad, half had done so for a year or less, but nearly 20 per cent had worked abroad for eight years or more. For many, the international component of their current job was not particularly high ( Table IV). However, in summary, the respondents′ exposure to international business was considerable and their views on the subject can therefore be given credence as based on personal knowledge rather than theory.

Managers′ models of international business

The respondents in the survey were asked to what extent their views on the nature of international business management reflected the two models described above. The results, shown in Table V, suggest the second model is more widely held than the first.

Few are neutral about either model. Eight out of ten of the managers questioned disagree that managing internationally is the same as managing at home; one in seven, however, agrees. This means that many more managers reject the generic model than accept it. An overwhelming 86 per cent agree that managing international business requires new knowledge and skills; only one in ten disagrees. In other words the great majority of the managers surveyed hold the specific model ( Table VI).

To elucidate what these models imply should be taught on management programmes, those surveyed were invited to draw on their experience to suggest the key areas of knowledge, skills and competences which a manager needs to operate successfully across international boundaries. Table VII shows the areas of knowledge named.

The areas of knowledge identified as necessary for the manager who needs to operate across boundaries reflect the contextual and environmental topics which are suggested as the core of international business management teaching by the first model. They focus on what is particular about a country or region which needs to be known in order to do business successfully there, such as local customs, local working practices and local markets as well as legal and fiscal frameworks and the means of undertaking country appraisal. Only one area of knowledge identified by respondents does not fit this pattern, namely the need to have a better than average knowledge of one’s own business and industry when doing business abroad.

Turning to the key skills and competences identified as essential for operating successfully across international borders, another clear pattern emerges. The areas mentioned fall into five distinct categories – language skills, business skills, management competences, personal attributes and support systems. The details of these specific skills and competences are shown in Table VIII.

Language skills are the most frequently mentioned, by eight out of ten respondents. The business skills mentioned reflect the core skills taught on general management programmes such as the MBA, with the emphasis on marketing, strategy, finance and managing people. Respondents also mention a variety of what we have come to call management competences headed by negotiating skills. The ability to communicate, relating to others, networking and diplomacy are also mentioned frequently. The fourth group of skills and competences reflect personal attributes, in particular flexibility and adaptability and a sensitivity to cultural differences. Patience and open-mindedness are also singled out.

The fifth group of skills and competences is rather different. A small group of managers drew attention to the importance of back up and support in order to operate effectively across international boundaries, perhaps reflecting the demands that such work puts on the individual manager.

The results of the survey are largely consistent with previous studies such as Barham and Oates who identified a set of desirable characteristics of an international manager. The characteristics overlap with those identified in the sample though respondents ordered their importance rather differently, perhaps reflecting the rather unusual characteristics of City managers.

Apart from languages the entire range of skills and competences named are those central to education and training to manage business in the home market. The only difference is that managers expect them to be developed to a higher degree and with reference to deployment in international situations. What is being identified here is consistent with the specific model of international business which implies that particular skills and competences must be acquired for international business management. At the same time, however, what managers see as necessary for international business is compatible with the generic model – which is rejected in the results recorded in Table V.

Handy discusses the notion of paradox and the importance of reconciling opposites. It would appear as if just such a paradoxical situation is intuitively recognized by managers who have to operate across international boundaries. On the one hand they reject the notion that international business management is just management done in a different location. However, when it comes to identifying what the international business manager needs, they emphasize the common skills of general management complemented by local knowledge and languages. What the survey tells us is that the two models are not an either and an or but a both and an and. Business schools need to combine both models in developing teaching that will equip managers to operate successfully across borders.

Approaches to teaching international business management

There have been a number of studies, both descriptive and prescriptive, of the internationalization of business schools (see for example which summarizes the results of various studies). The criteria they have emphasized include the extent of national and cultural mix among staff and students; the chance to study languages, international links and exchanges and the use of teaching materials drawn from various countries and cultures. However, internationalization of business schools in the UK has been far more a phenomenon of full-time business courses. City University Business School and London Business School are not unusual in drawing a majority of their full-time MBA students from overseas. Full-time students are also more easily able to take advantage of international linkages to study abroad for a term or even a year. The part-time and distance learning executive MBA student, who is now the norm in the UK, cannot enjoy such opportunities. On the other hand, such students have a background of experience, some of it international, on which business schools can build in their teaching.

Current debate about management teaching has highlighted two paradigms which underlie courses such as the MBA. Raelin and Schemerhorn distinguish two styles of teaching. One, identified as the objective approach, is based on the imparting of objective knowledge. Faculty as experts brief students on what needs to be known and students accumulate knowledge through lectures, reading and research. The second model, referred to as the interpretive approach, starts with the student′s business and management experience. Faculty act more as facilitators helping students to analyse their experience and develop their understanding of the management process.

To some extent these two approaches mirror classifications that have been made of individuals′ learning styles. Hayes and Allinson summarize numerous studies of cognitive styles including the well-known left and right brain dichotomy. Left brain thinking emphasizes analytical and logical thinking. Those who employ such thinking work sequentially and like to split their subject matter into defined parts. In contrast, right brain thinking is broader and more open ended. Those who employ this form of thinking search for the big picture rather than the detail and operate more intuitively. The authors note the arguments both for using teaching strategies which match students′ cognitive styles and for exposing them to unmatched styles to broaden the individual’s cognitive abilities.

The next part of the article examines how the sample managers learned the knowledge and skills relevant to international business while doing their MBA part time in common with many UK executives.

Learning for international business management on the evening MBA

Consistent with the broad spectrum of knowledge and skills cited as relevant to managing across international boundaries respondents indicated that they acquired relevant development across the whole of their MBA. This was the case despite the failure of the programme to meet some of the criteria laid down for business school internationalism: fewer than a quarter of the students could be considered international, the faculty is markedly national and Anglo-American materials still dominate the many courses.

Respondents identified four areas of their MBA where they gained relevant knowledge and skills, the core courses, international business electives, general electives and other parts of the course (Table IX).

The noticeable finding in this part of the survey is the wide range of course elements which students have found relevant to international business management. This includes not only those electives designed to teach international business but also the greater part of the core, as well as other elective courses. In addition a number of students mentioned the role of networking with other students on the course as a learning source.

Respondents were also asked to identify areas of knowledge and skills relevant to managing across international boundaries which were not covered on their MBA. The areas identified are shown in Table X.

Three areas are singled out by respondents as lacking in their MBA, first, languages; second, technical aspects of international finance relating to trade, taxation and also accounting; and third, international and comparative law which is taught on some MBAs but not on this programme. The most controversial area named is languages. There is debate in business schools as to whether languages should be a requirement and if so whether they are in addition to or a substitute for mainstream business and management subjects. Furthermore, reality seems to be going in the opposite direction. In the UK, after the fashion of preparation for the single market, demand for language teaching has fallen sharply as the demands of the subject become apparent to students and the expectations of employers fall. Even in INSEAD, renowned as an international business school enshrining bilingualism in its programmes, English is now virtually the only teaching language on the MBA.

The aspects of the MBA which are seen to impart knowledge and skills relevant to international business reflect both the general model of international business through the core courses and the specific model through the international business electives. However, respondents suggest that neither model has been worked through fully in the course design as elements central to both models are missing. Teaching styles vary between the courses on the programme but it would be fair to say that the majority are based on the objective approach and left brain thinking.

"Seeing is believing": the international study course

Full-time business and management students are increasingly offered the opportunity to study abroad as part of their degree. Such study periods give them the opportunity to immerse themselves in the culture of another country, to meet students from that country and to experience business and management teaching in that country. Exposure to business in that country is generally a by-product rather than a central feature of the study. The exception is where a student has the opportunity for a placement or a project with an overseas company.

A number of part-time executive MBA programmes which aim to offer an international education have incorporated short study tours as an alternative to the overseas placement or exchange programme available to the full-time student. Such short programmes have been criticized as executive tourism but at their best they have the potential to impart a wide range of international business management skills in an experiential way.

In the final part of the article some information is presented about managers′ views of six such international teaching weeks which have been run by City University Business School as part of its evening MBA programme.

Three of the courses have been held in Belgium, involving classes and visits in Brussels and Antwerp. These courses have had a strong European flavour and have paid particular attention to aspects of marketing and distribution and to the European Union framework. The other three courses have taken place in Tokyo and have attempted to explore a variety of aspects of the Japanese business environment and to contrast Western and Japanese management styles. All the courses count as advanced electives on the evening MBA programme. The International Teaching Weeks have developed in content and teaching style over time. The major components of such a course now comprise:

pre-course cultural and economic briefing;

orientation exercises in the locality;

company visits with senior managers;

visits to governmental and business organizations;

formal teaching in a local business school;

networking with local MBA students;

networking with native and expatriate young managers;

cultural and social programme;

observational exercises carried out in teams and presented before the end of the course to native and expatriate panel;

group research project involving in situ and library research on local business practice completed post-programme.

To contain all these elements effectively involves a very intense programme which commences the moment students check in at the airport.

A few students chose to take two International Teaching Week electives. The 62 respondents accounted for 68 visits of which 60 per cent were to the Far East (Japan) and 40 per cent to Europe (Belgium). The evaluation of the International Teaching Week as a vehicle for learning is, therefore, rather more influenced by those who chose to go to Japan than those who visited Europe.

The majority of students taking these courses (69 per cent), particularly those travelling to the Far East, had not visited the target country before. Four out of ten students had worked with companies or people from the country where their teaching week was held before they made their visit.

This degree of familiarity holds for Japan and Belgium: there is a large Japanese financial and commercial sector in London. Language, however, was a problem for students to both destinations. When asked whether they could speak the language used in the country visited enough to cope adequately with travel and simple business situations, only 17 per cent said that their skills were adequate. The low level of self-assessed language ability is surprising given that French, one of the two languages spoken in Belgium, is the main foreign language taught in British schools.

In a separate survey, data were collected from managers who attended the most recent International Teaching Week in Japan on their reasons for choosing to take the course. The main reason students chose the elective was an interest in learning about Japan. Participants were interested in the country, its approach to business and its culture and wanted the opportunity to learn about it at first hand. Asked what they expected to learn, the overwhelming expectation was of gaining a greater understanding of Japanese business and culture. Students also expected to gain a greater understanding of UK/Japanese differences, to rectify misconceptions about Japan and to learn how to succeed in Japan.

The second most important set of reasons the participants in this group cited was that they were attracted to this particular type of elective. They liked the idea of experiential learning, of travelling and the potential to have fun while learning. When asked how they thought the course would differ from conventional MBA modules they highlighted the fact that it was practical as opposed to theoretical and not book-based. They also expected it to be more intense, more demanding, deeper and more diffuse than other courses they had taken.

The managers in the full survey were asked to comment to what extent they felt they had acquired the areas of knowledge and skills they had identified as necessary for a manager who wants to operate successfully across international boundaries in the course of an International Teaching Week. The scale on which they ranked each element was: 1: acquired extensively; 2: acquired somewhat; 3: not acquired at all.

For each element two scores were computed; first the average score given by all respondents (A) and second the percentage of respondents awarding that element a "1" (B). A score of 2 or less suggests the great majority acquired the knowledge or skill on the Teaching Week. High scores of 2.5 or above suggest acquisition of this knowledge or skill was limited. The scores for the aspects of knowledge identified are given in Table XI.

Given the short time-span the courses last and the range of knowledge identified it was surprising to see how much the managers felt they had learned on their International Teaching Weeks. The impact on knowledge of the local social, political and cultural environment of business was the greatest. About 30 per cent of those who had identified these as important elements for the international business manager felt they had acquired them extensively during their week′s programme and very few felt they had not acquired these particular aspects at all.

Turning to the skills and competences identified as necessary to operate successfully across international boundaries the results of the survey are given in Table XII.

Languages are, unsurprisingly, not generally acquired by students on a course of this nature. Nor is this sort of course a key vehicle for the acquisition of general business skills such as marketing, strategy or finance. On the other hand, managers report high levels of acquisition of many management competences and personal attributes on the International Teaching Weeks. The most extensively acquired skills are listening, networking, open-mindedness, patience, sensitivity to cultural differences and greater flexibility and adaptability.

The learning experience which managers have on such courses is summarized by the responses to two general evaluative questions. Almost 100 per cent of participants in the courses had found them valuable (Table XIII). Furthermore, participants admitted that the courses had had a significant effect on them personally by altering their views about the country in which their International Teaching Week was held (Table XIV).

It is interesting to note that the numbers who changed their views about the location exceeded the numbers who had visited there previously.

Discussion and conclusions

The final part of this article is concerned with what we can learn from the survey about the educational challenges of preparing managers for international business management. The challenges are many, but the opinions expressed by the respondents, all managers and all current or recent MBA students, suggest that six particular ones stand out.

1 Recognizing that international business management is both a generic and a specific form of management. Each of the two models identified in this article has its champions and followers. The faculty who teach international business management courses are often passionate adherents of one approach or the other. However, the message which managers convey is that although the specific model summarizes the way they see managing across international boundaries better than the generic model, the specific knowledge and skills they identify as relevant to international managers are developments of the core skills of general management anywhere.

Those responsible for training and course design must, therefore, ensure that students receive both a broad and a targeted educational experience within their programmes. Every part of a traditional MBA or general management course is relevant to the needs of the international business manager, not just those parts of the course which focus on international issues.

2 Keeping the teaching of international business management in parallel with the move towards competence-based teaching. In the UK, and to some extent the US there have been strong movements in recent years to shift the focus of management teaching from knowledge transfer to the development of skills and competences. Business schools have been criticized as over-theoretical, out of touch and lacking in practical relevance for the modern manager. In the UK the government and industry have both pushed in this direction through such movements as the Management Charter Initiative (MCI) and the development of NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications). The views of the managers surveyed here clearly emphasize the wide range of both knowledge and skills which are needed to manage successfully across borders.

Those responsible for setting standards for management competences have not yet defined them in terms of international managemen and few MBA programmes, if any, in the UK have thought through systematically the skills and competences as opposed to the knowledge base of international business management.

3 Teaching transferable skills in the context of specific localities. The core areas of necessary knowledge identified by the respondent managers focus on knowledge of the locality in which they are going to do business. One approach is to focus on the markets of the advanced industrial nations such as Japan, the USA and the European Union on the grounds that these account for the greatest presence in international business. However, this has two shortcomings. First it ignores the emerging markets of China, other Asian States, the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe to name but a few. Second, even in relation to one or two areas the knowledge will be superficial. International business management teaching has to ensure that as students learn about a locality they learn how to learn about a locality. This involves a great deal more than finding out how to use a library or research a country from the UK. It involves helping students to become aware of what operating in another country feels like, what knowledge and skills they need when, and how they can both operate and learn in a locality for which they have only received limited preparation.

4 Balancing conventional teaching with experiential learning. Different individuals have different cognitive and learning styles. Some managers have a highly analytical and systematic approach and find it easy to learn in the lectures and seminars which have been the backbone of traditional higher education. Others take a more holistic approach and learn less systematically and find it easier to work with the complexity and messiness of the real world than with books and papers. The former individuals need to be shown how to gain more from unstructured learning situations and often how to learn from life itself. The latter group often needs to curb their instinctive approach and to learn to derive more from the wealth of research and writing about international business management which is increasingly generated by scholars. Business schools need to meet the challenge of designing courses which incorporate the experience of both types of learning in the field of international business management.

5 The thorny problem of languages. The problem of where to place language teaching is writ particularly large in the UK where standard education achieves very poor levels of language competence. However it is not just a UK problem. Even though English has become an unofficial language of international business, UK managers point to language as the key skill which is needed to operate across international borders. Business schools manage the problem in various ways. The important point which emerges from the study, however, is that language must be a key concern of a business school which aims to equip students to operate across international borders effectively and it should not be treated as something on a par with sports facilities and social clubs which students can take advantage of on a voluntary basis.

Business schools must be concerned with languages in context. For example, negotiating at the international level was identified as a key skill and one where levels of language ability play a key part in strategy. However, unless language fluency is made a prerequisite of entry (a criterion which will reinforce élitism in training for international business management) it is questionable how far students can progress with a language while also studying business and management. Part of the answer may be to make students aware of the levels of language needed for different management processes and to help them to recognize those which are within their reach and those where assistance will be required.

6 International business management for all managers. The final challenge which business schools face is to open up quality international business management to all managers as globalization proceeds apace. The impact of delayering and the transformation of traditional hierarchical structures has the effect of making every manager in an organization that does business with other countries potentially an international business manager. The production of managers trained to operate internationally has been the province of an élite of high quality and exclusive schools. International management training has been costly because those providing it are able to charge premium fees. More managers are having to operate directly or indirectly across borders and need access to the training which has previously been available to the few. As organizations become more global, operating across boundaries is an ability which all managers, not just a few, will need. The implication of this is that all business schools need to push themselves down the road of internationalization and look at the internationalization of their course design and teaching methods.

table Ⅰage of the survey respondents
age percentage
under 30
31
31-35
43
36-40
18
over 40
8

table Ⅱ industrial background of respondents
industry percentage
banking
32
non-financial services
13
other financial services
11
oil and chemicals
8
communications
8
management consultancy
6
public sector
6
insurance
5
manufacturing
5
other(including transportation, media and the public sector)
6

table Ⅲ respondents' occupations
occupation percentage
IT specialists
18
banker
16
financial specialists
16
sales and marketing
15
planning/business development
10
management consultants
7
accountants
3
other (including general managers, scientist, civil servants, engineers, lawyers and editors)
15

table Ⅳ international component of respondents' work
percentage of international work percentage of respondents
less than 25
55
25-49
18
50-74
6
75-400
21

table Ⅴ percentage of respondents agreeing or disagreeing with the statement
"Managing international business is fundamentally the same as managing domestic business"
level of agreement
percentage
strongly agree
5
agree
10
neither agree nor disagree
5
disagree
64
strongly disagree
16

table Ⅵ percentage of respondents agreeing or disagreeing with the statement
"managing international business successfully necessitates the acquisition of new knowledge and skills"
level of agreement
percentage
strongly agree
40
agree
46
neither agree nor disagree
2
disagree
5
strongly disagree
7

table Ⅶ areas of knowledge required for international business management
knowledge required percentage of respondents naming area
local customs and culture
76
local business and working practices
47
local markets and consumer preferences
40
legal environments
34
political and social environments
34
regulatory and tax environments
27
international economics, cinance and trade
24
kownledge of own business and industry
21
sources of advice and help
5

tableⅧ skills and competences needed for international business management
skills required percentage of respondents naming skill
Languages
82
Business skills
 marketing
35
 finance and accounting
32
 corporate strategy
29
 organizational behaviour
24
 technology and computing
10
 planning and decision making
6
 
Management competences
 negotiating
29
 communications skills
23
 interpersonal skills
16
 networking
15
 diplomacy
15
 listening skills
8
 presentation skills
5
 team building
5
 
Personal attributes
 sensitivity to cultural differences
37
 flexibility and adaptability
34
 patience
13
 open-mindedness
10
 focus and tenacity
8
 ability to handle complexity and ambiguity (also mentioned under this catagory were: global outlook, energy and ability to withstand pressure, questioning mind, resourcefulness, accuracy, confidence)
6
 
Support
 information back up (also mentioned were: organizational support and personal support)
8

tableⅨ sources of knowledge and skills for international business management on their MBA
source percentage of respondents naming source
Core courses
 corporate strategy
32
 marketing
26
 organizational development
16
 finance
5
(also mentioned were: accounting and economics)
 
International business management electives
 international business management
40
 international narketing
26
 international culcural environment
19
 international banking
11
 trade and project finance
10
 managing the multinational
8
 international treasury management
8
 
General electives
 strategic business development
6
 (also mentioned were: corporate finance, human resource management, information management and corporate communications)
 
Other course elements
 informal interchange with other students
16
 (also mentioned were: personal skills courses and projects)

table Ⅹ knowledge and skills relevant to international business management not covered to respondents' MBAs
skill identified percentage of respondents
languages
29
international aspects of finance and accounting
27
legal environments
19
personal skills for international business
13
international aspects of organizational behaviour
11
international negotiating
10
international aspects of marketing
8
area/country studies
6
   
also mentioned were: ethics, international aspects of technology and computing, international aspects of strategy, international operations and polities  

table Ⅺ acquisition of knowledge relevant to international business management
knowledge acquired A B
local customs and culture
1.69
39
political and social environments
1.86
24
local business and working practices
1.86
28
 
local markets and consumer preferences
2.07
11
legal environments
2.19
10
sources of advice and help
2.33
international economics, finance and trade
2.41
regulatory and tax environment
2.44
6
knowledge of own business and industry
2.47
7

table Ⅻ acquisition of knowledge relevant to international business management
skill/competence acquired
A
B
Languages
2.62
-
Business skills
 marketing
2.04
17
 corporate strategy
2.17
13
 planning and decision making
2.25
-
 technology and computing
2.33
-
 organizational behaviour
2.38
19
 finance and accounting
2.82
-
 
Management competences
 listening skills
1.20
80
 networking
1.80
50
 communications
2.00
15
 presentation skills
2.00
25
 team building
2.00
33
 interpersonal skills
2.36
9
 diplomacy
2.36
9
 negotiation
2.50
6
 
Personal attributes
 open-mindedness
1.50
50
 sensitivety to cultural differences
1.59
45
 patience
1.88
38
 flexibility and adaptability
1.90
25
 ability to handle complexity and ambiguity
2.00
-
 focus and tenacity
2.80
 
Support
 information back-up
2.00
25

table ⅩⅢ respondents' views of the value of international teaching weeks
degree of value percentage
very valuable
69
of some value
29
of little or no value
2

table ⅩⅣ the impact of international teaching weeks on respondents' views of a country
degree of change percentage
altered my views significantly
41
altered my views somewhat
40
did not change my views
19

 

 
 

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